Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries.

  • Usually vancomycin and a broad-spectrum β-lactam drug
Antimicrobial therapy in early-onset disease is similar to that for neonatal sepsis. Vancomycin and a broad-spectrum β-lactam drug such as meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, or cefepime (see Table: Recommended Dosages of Selected Parenteral Antibiotics for Neonates), are the initial treatment of choice for most late-onset healthcare-associated pneumonia. This regimen treats sepsis as well as pneumonia with typical hospital-acquired pathogens including P. aeruginosa. Local patterns of infection and bacterial resistance should always be used to help guide empiric choices of antimicrobials. More specific antibiotics are substituted after sensitivity results are available. General treatment is the same as that for neonatal sepsis.