Extra pulmonary tuberculosis

TB is usually classified based on the disease symptoms and site of infection. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis refers to disease outside the lungs. It is sometimes confused with non-respiratory disease. Disease of the larynx for example, which is part of the respiratory system, is respiratory but extra-pulmonaryPeople who are HIV positive and infected with TB develop extra-pulmonary disease much more frequently, up to 50% of cases.[2] Both during the initial (or primary) infection with TB and during any subsequent secondary active disease the bacteria are spread by blood or the lymphatic system to other parts of the body. In healthy people these bacteria are usually destroyed by the immune system. If some immune deficit is present some may concentrate at a particular site where they may lie dormant for years or even decades before causing disease. The most common sites of infection for extra-pulmonary TB in order of frequency are: Lymph glands Pleura (membrane than covers the lungs) Genito-urinary tract. In women uterine disease is probably the most common while in men the epididymis is the site most frequently affected. Both sexes are affected by renal or bladder disease equally. Bones and joints (also called osteotuberculosis) Meninges, which may be rapidly fatal if not, treated in time Bowel and/or peritoneum Pericardium (membrane around the heart) Skin